In recent years, due to rapid urbanization in India vehicular pollution is continuously increasing. Particularly in metro cities, air pollution has become a serious problem. Due to air pollution, people are facing health issues like heachache, nausea and visibility problems.
Many pollutants are emitted from automobiles. Some of the pollutants are hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide etc. Other factors due to which air pollution is increasing are poor fuel quality, inadequate maintenance, poor road condition and old technologies.
In India, there is an increase in the number of vehicles from 0.3 million to 58.3 million. The capital of nation Delhi has more number of vehicles compared to other cities. Besides land traffic, air traffic also releases pollutants. According to studies, due to air pollutants 64% of Delhi’s children suffer from lung diseases and 71.4% suffer from respiratory diseases.
In small towns, air is polluted partly by mining and industries and mainly by vehicles. Analysing all the above issues regarding pollution, the government has taken certain measures. Let out in detail measures taken to control air pollution through vehicles.
10 measures to stop vehicular air pollution in India
1. Vehicular Emission policies:
The vehicular emission policies in India are detailed below:
(i) India has been notified as mass emission norms for the first time during 1990-91. Under Environment protection act) these policies were being notified. Rules under Motor vehicles and Air Act were applicable to vehicles at the manufacturing stage as well as for in-use vehicles.
(ii) The emission norms introduced in 1996 which were very stringent and crucial.
(iii) From April 1995, passenger cars with catalytic converters were allowed to be registered in four metros— Delhi; Mumbai; Kolkata and Chennai. These emission norms for such vehicles were notified under automobile act in 1998.
(iv) The method for testing passenger cars was modified from hot start to cold start.
(v) In 2000, more norms were introduced. Accordingly, automobile manufacturers are supposed to undergo major modifications.
(vi) As per Hon’ble Supreme Court’s directions only private vehicles conforming to at least EURO forms are being registered in NCR from June 1999 and from April 2000 only private vehicle’s satisfying Bharat Stage-11 norms were being registered. Euro-II norms for personal vehicles (4 wheelers) was applicable in Mumbai from 2001.
In Kolkata, from november 1999, 2000 norms (Euro-I) weremade applicable. As Mashelkar Committee accepted the recommendations, passenger cars and commercial vehicles have tю accept the Bharat stage-II norms across the country by April 1, 2005 and by april 1, 2010 Euro-Ill specifications.
By April, 2003 eleven most polluted cities were asked to meet Bharat Stage-II norms, Euro-III norms by April 1, 2005 and Euro-IV standards by April 1, 2010. These cities are Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra.
Two-wheelers and three-wheelers will have to comply with Bharat Stage-II norms by April 1, 2005 and Bharat Stage-Iii norms preferably by April 1, 2008, but not later than April 1, 2010.
(vii) From 1st October 1999, emission norms for agricultural tractors were being introduced throughout the country. Bharat Sztage-II and Bharat Stage-Iii emission norms for tractors have been scheduled to be implemented from 2003 and 2005 respectively.
(viii) In Mumbai, the Bharat Stage-II norms for new 4-wheeler private non-commercial vehicles were introduced from January 2001 and in Kolkata and Chennai from July 2001 to 24th October, 2001.
(ix) Only those taxes are being registered in Delhi, which are meeting Bharat Stage-II norms.
(x) Bharat Stage-II norms for Diesel 4-wheeler transport vehicles were introduced in NCT from 24th October, 2001, in Greater Mumbai, Kolkata & Chennai from 31.10.2001.
(xi) The expert committee on Auto Oil Policy constituted in September 2001 recommended Bharat Stage-Iii emission norms for all categories of 4-wheelers in 7 mega cities from 2005 and rest of the country by 2010.